Cash crops are grown for direct sale in the market, rather than for family consumption or to feed livestock. Coffee, cocoa, tea, sugarcane, cotton, and spices are some examples of cash crops. Food crops such as rice, wheat, and corn are also grown as cash crops to meet the global food demand. Production of many of these crops is a form of export-oriented production, a development associated with European colonization in the topics and subtropics. Europeans developed cash crops in large-scale, capital-intensive, and export-oriented plantation agricultural systems. Today, smallholder farmers in developing countries grow most of the cash crops, such as coffee. Cultivation of cash crops was not always associated with colonization. Precolonial societies also engaged in growing crops for sale to balance their dual foci of risk and subsistence security. Colonization brought another dimension to cash crop production by introducing new crops, technology, and scale of production. Colonization in ...